A Multi Disciplinary Approach To Vaastu Energy

# VASTU SHASTRA

“When Inner Space and Outer Space Resonate together in Harmony, then Peacefulness, Vitality, Health, Prosperity and Creativity become the Natural Order and Effortless Experience.”
– Dr Ganapati Sthapati

Ayadi calculations are secret mathematical formulas of Vastu Shastra, which were used since ancient times for construction of Hindu temples and homes. By knowing how to apply them, you can determine the exact quality of cosmic vibration present in every object around you. It also allows you to design the space you live in and objects of your everyday use to be in tune with your birth nakshatra.

#### The Motherwall

•  The “Motherwall “ is the primary wall or container that serves to create a space for Consciousness to become conscious – for Vastu (unmanifest energy) to become Vaastu (manifest).
•  In a home, for example, it is often the main four walls of the house.
• We call it “Motherwall” because it forms the structure that gives birth to Vastu becoming Vaastu.
• The Motherwall is constructed on a 9×9 grid and is formed with very specific individualized measurements that cause the central pada (module) to exude specific life-giving qualities that then vibrate through the whole structure. It is through this form that consciousness, Purusha, takes the form of its container.
• The dweller then begins to vibrate with those same qualities just as a vibrating tuning fork of one pitch causes another tuning fork of the same pitch in close proximity to vibrate.

The calculations used to form the Motherwall are called Ayadi calculations.

• The Ayadi calculation is chosen to be an exact mathematical calculation that scientifically equates to the personal resonance/vibration of the dweller.
• With the Ayadi calculation, a number of factors are considered in determining exactly what size the Motherwall must be in order to resonate the effect of consciousness becoming conscious within the dweller when he or she enters and resides in a specific house. This is a vital piece of information that supports the fullness of the Vastu effect.
• Once the Ayadi calculation is determined, the structure is divided into 9 by 9 modules. The modules can be square or rectangular. These modules help locate important features such as windows and doors on the appropriate grid lines. This maximizes the positive effect of the grid, solar energies and cosmic energies. Extensions (rooms) of various shapes and forms can be added beyond the Motherwall but only in accordance with the mathematical formulas of the Ayadi and modules.

We can say that a house is a convergence of frequencies – a Vaastu or Mayonic house is a convergence of known frequencies determined by Ayadi, which bring spiritual peace, well-being, and happiness.

#### The Brahmasthan

The central point of the structure is the Brahmasthan. It is the central module, and the adjacent row of modules surrounding the central module of the 9 by 9 grid formed by the Motherwall.

• It is the nucleolus of space from which and in which consciousness becomes conscious. The energy generator for the Vaastu building.
• Locating the Brahmasthan is of vital importance in breathing life into a structure.
• This central point can be likened to the nucleus of an atom around which energetic forces revolve.
• Maximum benefit arises when this central area is designed in harmony with the rest of the structure.
• The key feature of the Brahmasthan is that it is an autocatalytic energy generator. The qualities and characteristics of the energy generated (happiness, wealth, health, relational and spiritual bliss, success, respect etc.) are determined by the Ayadi calculation of the Motherwall. As described above, these numerical calculations determine the pulse and ultimate frequency of all the modules/padas and the Brahmasthan. The properly placed walls act as energy conduits. The sum total of these frequencies determines the vibrational frequency of the structure. The vibrational frequency generated by the Brahmasthan creates the same frequency within the body and consciousness of the dweller.

Many so-called Vaastu Consultants who are not properly trained attempt to “open the Brahmasthan” when they are doing “rectification” of non-Vaastu compliant houses. This is an improper use of the Shastric knowledge. The qualities of a house are determined by the measure of the main wall, its orientation on true east and true north, and several other points. If the Brahmasthan of a non – compliant house is opened then that may increase any negative traits produced by the measurement of the house and the improper orientation. This can bring misfortune to the inhabitant.

In Vaastu Shastra, a set of six formulae called Aayadi are used to work out the Length, Breadth, perimeter, area and the height of the building. According to Vaastu Shastra, it is necessary that one follows the Aayadi formulae strictly in order to experience positive effects within the building.

Aayadi constitutes six formulae Aaya, Vyaya, Yoni, Raksha, Vara and Tithi. The remainder obtained by using these formulae, determines whether it is gain or loss. If it is a gain, then the structure is proportionate and stable and the dimensions are right. However if it is a loss, then it means the dimensions are not right and should be suitably corrected.

• Aaya - is the remainder obtained when Length is multiplied by 8 and divided by 12
• Raksha - is the remainder obtained when Length is multiplied by 8 and divided by 27
• Vyaaya - is the remainder obtained when Breadth is multiplied by 9 and divided by 10
• Yoni - is the remainder obtained when Breadth is multiplied by 3 and divided by 8
• Vara - is the remainder obtained when Height is multiplied by 9 and divided by 7
• Tithi - is the remainder obtained when Height is multiplied by 9 and divided by 30

### Fixing Length of Building/Rooms:

• Aaya and Raksha formuale are used to fix both the Length of the building and of the rooms.
• Aaya also known as 'aadhayam', means income and 'Vyaya' means loss or expenditure. Therefore, the Aaya should always be greater than the Vyaya.
• Using the Aayadi formulae it has been concluded that for the Aaya to be more than the Vyaya the length of rooms/building should preferrably be 1.5 times the breadth or at least 1.375 times the width.
• This is why we find that sites are generally not square but rectangular with a Length 1.375 - 1.5 times the Breadth. For example: Sites have dimensions of 40 x 60, 30 x 40, 30 x 45, and 50 x 80.

### Fixing the Breadth of Building/Rooms:

• The Yoni and Vyaya formulae are used for fixing the breadth of the building.
• If the Yoni obtained is an odd remainder, then it is good whereas if it is even, then it is considered bad Yoni.
• 1, 3, 5 and 7 remainders are considered good Yoni and are associated with the directions East, South, West and North, respectively.
• Therefore depending on the direction the building faces, the corresponding Yoni should be used to fix the breadth of the building/rooms.
• The Yoni of the first floor should be the same as the Yoni of the ground floor.
• When an old house is being renovated, then a new Yoni different from the Yoni of the old house should be used for the renovated house.

### Fixing the Dimensions on the Orientation:

• The Yoni formula defining the breadth measurement is useful for buildings that are not oriented to the cardinal directions.
• Vastu Shastra clearly emphasizes the importance of orienting buildings towards the four cardinal directions (North, East, South or West) so that they can withstand the impact of monsoon winds and natural energies and also benefit from them.
• As far as possible, buildings should not be oriented to the intermediate directions.
• But in rare situations, if the site faces an intermediate direction, the Yoni formula should be used so that the remainder is 1. This will ensure that the dimensions of the building are such that it can withstand the forces of nature.

### Fixing the Height of Building:

• The height of the building can be fixed using the Vara and Tithi formulae.
• The height of the first floor should not be more than that of the Ground floor.

### Units of Measurement in Vaastu Shastra:

In the olden days the units of measurement were the Angula (3/4 of an inch) and Hasta ( 18 inches) so that 1 Hasta equals 24 Angulas. However the value of Hasta and Angula were different in different regions. Therefore, by using the Aayadi formulae for fixing the dimensions of a building, the risk of creating disproportionate spaces is eliminated.

In ancient times these sacred formulas were used to design personal jewellery, furniture’s, pieces of art or even work tools, so they can enhance the unique stellar vibration of the individual – as well as to design entire houses, temples, deities and cities. In our times they are additionally helpful for designing logos, webpages, product labels and other marketing tools.

Ayadi calculation is one of the most important aspects in Sthapatya Veda, Ayadi Calculation is also called as Ayadi Shadvarga or the building formulae. The Scriptures, as well as the ancient architects (Sthapatis), considered the dwellings as a living organism, irrespective of the temple, residential homes, palaces etc.

The Land also known as Kshetra and the dwellings was built in proper rhythm & proportion for the residents to live in harmony with nature. When houses were built using these Ayadi formulae, they were said to give the residents spirituality, health, wealth, and prosperity.

Ayadi is a technological application for building design and construction.

“Adi – Ay” stands for “to analyze the primal energy “Adi” => “Ayadi” or calculation of wave length (in a form of concentric squires) and to find positive benefits.

The perimeter of the primal energy particle, Paramanu was measured and used as proportional base in building’s perimeter calculations.

The perimeter is the measure of consciousness.

It can be positive or negative. When using Ayadi, only positive measures (numbers) are used in the building construction.

These numbers are “auspicious.”

“Every living being possesses qualities and characteristics of a particular star at the time of birth – Birth Star.”

“To find the number relating to each star and analyzing its wave length as good and bad comprises the essence of ‘Ayadi Gananam.’”

That number or wave length of the building’s perimeter will match the Birth Star’s wave length or inhabitant’s wave length creating resonance and harmony of both.

Different types of Ayadi calculations involve different aspects:

• 10 Major aspects – DASAYADI
• 16 Major aspects – SHODASAYADI

Shodasayadi is good for temples and deities.

• Aayam (Income)
• Vyayam (Expenditure)
• Yoni (Direction of Energy Waves)
• Varam (Day of a Week)
• Amsam (Quality)
• Nakshatra (Birth Star)

There are different calculations done in Vaastu for different purposes using Ayadi Shadvarga to check the energy suitability of the residents with the land & building by taking into account the Nakshatra or the birth star of the owner, these calculations are used for Town or city planning, Temples, Residences, Apartments, Commercial & Industrial buildings.

There are Seven aspects to be examined under Ayadi

1. Aaya – Income / benefits

2. Vyaya – Expenditure

3. Yoni – Direction indicating the flow of energy (Prana)

4. Varam – Weekdays

5. Nakshatra – Star

6. Amsa – Quality/feature

7. Ayu – Life of the building

#### The Process of calculation for each Ayadi

The Aaya (Income) should always be more than Vyaya (Expenditure). If Vyaya is more than Aaya, then the residents will always have financial problems.

The Yoni Should always have a reminder in odd numbers i.e 1, 3, 5, 7. Refer the below Yoni table for benefits.

Below table explains the best direction the building should face as recommended in Sthapatya Veda

 Yoni Number Cardinal Direction Yoni Result 1 East Dhwaja (Flagstaff) Auspicious 2 South-East Dhooma (Smoke) Inauspicious 3 South Simha (Lion) Auspicious 4 South-West Svanam (Dog) Inauspicious 5 West Vrshaba (Bull) Auspicious 6 North-West Kharam (Ass) Inauspicious 7 North Gaja (Elephant) Auspicious 8 North-East Kakam (Crow) Inauspicious

Yoni calculation is an important aspect in Ayadi calculation, based on the Yoni the direction of the plot & Building is decided. Dhwaja Yoni is considered the best Yoni in Sthapatya Veda. Another important point to be observed is that all the auspicious Yonis are in line with Cardinal direction of North, South, East & West. The Plot or the building with diagonal directions  & entrance from North-East, South-East, South-West, North-West is inauspicious & hence rejected.

Varam with 1, 2, 4, 5, 6 is auspicious

There are 27 Nakshatras in Vedic astrology, the Nakshatras with 2, 4, 6, 8, 9 as reminders are auspicious.

Amsam or Quality with the remainder 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 9 is considered auspicious.

The above calculations are performed by an expert Vaastu Sthapathi before one starts construction of any form of a building, it is recommended that You consult an expert to attain both spiritual & material benefits.

The perimeter of the building is most important measure to create vibrational resonance of all involved energetic spaces:

1. Cosmic
2. Earthly
3. Encapsulated Building’s Space
4. Human’s inner space

Per Ayadi tables, Encapsulated Building’s Space has its own Star based on the perimeter of the building.

Every inhabitant of the building has his/her own Birth Star too.

Per Ayadi, the birth star of a female has to be in resonance with the building’s space first.

When the relational number is found between stars (building’s and female’s) from Nakshatra Table, and then that number should be verified with the Paryaya Table. The relational number should have a positive benefit, or positive property (good numbers are 2, 4, 6, 8, 9). It means that resonance is created.

The same comparisons need to be done with every birth star of every inhabitant of the space. If all birth stars are in a ‘good’ vibrational relationship, then the perimeter of the building can be used for construction.

Vaastu Purusha Mandala should be laid on the floor plan to determine the usage of building’s spaces.

Ayadi calculations are a set of Vastu calculations which are made to check the energic suitability of the plot and its relationship with the owner.

 S. No. Name 1 नक्षत्रः Nakshatra 2 आयः Aaya – Income Factor 3 व्ययः Vyaya – Expense Factor 4 योनिः Yoni – Category of the Plot 5 अंशः Amsha 6 आयुः Aayu 7 वर्णः Varna 8 वारः Vaar

### Ayadi Number of a Plot

Ayadi Number is the perimeter of the property in the given vastu unit, and is the the basis of Ayadi calculations.  For residential and industrial projects Hasta is the unit which is used which is 0.8382 m in length.  For example, a plot whose Perimeter is 80 metres will have the Ayadi number 96.  (Hasta which is rounded off to 96 Hasta).

### Nakshatra Calculation

The  Nakshatra compatibility determines the ruling Nakshatra star of the land and its relationship with the owner’s Nakshatra.  The Nakshatra of the land is calculated by the perimeter of the plot.

### Aya and Vyaya Calculations

The Aya calculation determines the Income Factor of the land.  The Vyaya calculation determines the Expense Factor of the Land.  The Income Factor should be greater than the Expenditure Factor.

### Yoni Calculation

Yoni means a class or a category. Vastushastra defines eight categories or yonis, and all measurable  size belong to one of these eight categories.

The Brahmasthaan – the Central point – always pulsates with cosmic energy and creates a flow of energy in the plot which begins to flow towards the edge of the plot. The flow of energy towards the cardinal directions constitutes four categories, and it's flow towards the corner directions constitute the other four categories.

Dhwaja Category – Flow towards East

Simha Category – Flow towards South

Vrishabh Category – Flow towards West

Gaja Category – Flow towards North

Dhoomra Category – Flow towards South-East

Shwaan Category – Flow towards South-West

Khar Category – Flow towards North-West

Kaak Category – Flow towards North-East

Of these Dhwaja, Simha, Vrishabh and Gaja yonis are auspicious. Plots and houses with dimensions which confirm to these yonis enhance financial fortunes, good health, victory and success in competition, and overall prosperity.

Dhoomra, Shwan, Khar and Kaak yonis are best avoided as they are believed to enhance problems like ill health, bad fortunes, loss of money, failure in career, shattered happiness, fractured relationships etc.

### Amsa Calculation

The Amsam calculation determines the nature of the land.  There are eight Amsam which are described by Maya in his treatise Mayamatam.

1 तस्कर – Thief

2 भुक्ति – Enjoyment

3 शक्ति – Strength

4 धन – Riches

5 नृप – Kingship

6 षण्ड – Enunch, powerless

7 अभय – Fearless

8 विपत – Troubles

9 समृद्धि – Prosperity

As the name suggests plots with Amsa of Bhukti, Shakti, Dhan, Nrupa, Abhaya and Samriddhi are good.

### Ayu Calculation

Ayu calculations are made in two ways:

• To determine the lifespan of a building or a plot, or the period upto which things will remain harmonious amongst the inhabitants in that property. The Ayadi number is multiplied by 27 and divided by 100, and the remainder indicates the Ayu.
• The other is a much more calculation. It indicates the creative or productive quotient of a property. This process has been described in Manushyala Chandrika where the text describes 5 categories of Ayu.

1 बालत्व     Childhood

3 यौवन      Youth

4 वृद्ध       Old age

5 निधन     Decease

1 and 2 are medium. 3 and 4 are best. 5 is avoided.

### Varna

Varna calculation indicates the pychological impact of space and the type of activity which it would support.

The first category supports intellectual activities and is suitable for schools, colleges, universities, libraries, centres of advance learning and resesarch activities.

The second category supports all types of administrative activities and is suitable for buildings which house administrative, judicial, parliamentary, governing activities.

The third category supports all types of commercial activities and are suitable for stock exchanges, shopping malls, showrooms, commercial offices.

The fourth category supports all service, support and labour related activities and are suitable for production units and factories, service centres, call centres, agro activities, transport related activities.

### Vaar

The Vaar calculation determines further compatibility with the owner.

To calculate the Vaar of the property its Ayadi number is multiplied by 9 and then divided by 7. The remainder is Vaar. There are seven Vaar categories which are named after the weekdays, starting from 1 being Sunday and ending with 7 being Saturday. Of these 2, 4, 5, 6, 7 are acceptable, 1 and 3 are avoided (Sunday and Tuesday) because they indicate a strong tendency of incidents of fire in the property.

### Vastu Calculations for Buildings

There has been extensive boom in the construction of housing, industrial, commercial buildings in big cities. Because of the complexity in the architecture and construction methods, there has been lot of confusion about the proper application of Vastu Shastra based building formulae. Appropriate application of various Vastu based formulae is possible when one clearly understands the concepts and significations embedded in the Vastu based formulae.

Vastu Calculations for Buildings also known as Ayadi Shadvarga by the ancient masters of wisdom.

Ayadi is a group of six formulae Aya, Vyaya, Yoni, Rksha, Vara and Tithi that are used to determine the dimensional conformance of a building. The six formulae are divided in to three sets and each set consists of two formulae. A specific set of formulae is used to work out the length, breadth and height of the building or the structure. The length and breadth are the outer measurements of the foundation (bhumilamba) or its base (adhistana). The height of the building is considered to be from the bottom of the foundation or the bottom of the base to the topmost point of the building. The remainder obtained by using these formulae determines the gain or loss accruing, the constellation compatibility and the lunar and solar days that conduce to one's well being.

Vastu Shastra clearly emphasizes the importance of orienting the constructions to the cardinal directional. Therefore, the orientation of the building to be one of the four cardinal directions (north, east, south or west). As far as possible, buildings facing angular directions are to be avoided. But in rare situations, if the site is oriented in the angular directions, the orientation (or Yoni) formulae can be worked out in such a way so that the remainder is 1. The ancient masters were aware of the power of monsoon winds and other energies (physical and metaphysical). These energies were also considered in the orientation and construction of the buildings.

The unit of measurement used is generally the Kisku Hasta that equals 24 angulas. The hasta conversion is done diversely in different regions. One school of thought equates a hasta to two feet and nine inches and an angula to 1 3/8th inch. Another school of thought equates a hasta to 72 cm (28.3 inches) and an angula to 3 cm (1.2 inches). Here, the hasta is measured from the shoulder to the tip of the middle finger.

A third school of thought, equates a hasta to 18 inches (and an angula to 0.75 inches) Here, hasta is the length of the arm from the bottom of the elbow to the tip of the middle finger. The Ayadi Shadvarga is calculating by taking any of the standardized hasta measurements or using the actual hasta length of either the master, his/her spouse, eldest son or the architect (or contractor) designing the house.

Further research on the definition or usage of the Hasta measurement is needed to specifically determine whether 18 inches, 2.75 feet, 72 cm or the actual arm length from the elbow (or the shoulder) to the tip of the middle finger is appropriate. This scribe generally uses the 18-inch Hasta, based on measuring the distance from the elbow to the tip of the middle finger.

Manasara recommends working out nine different lengths and breadths and five heights for a building. The Yoni formula defining the breadth measurement very clearly reinforces the importance of proper orientation. Most religious buildings, palaces, cities, villages and roads of ancient India and many other parts of the world faced the cardinal directions. In fact, the Giza and Great pyramids of Egypt are oriented to the north.

The table below summarizes the six formulae.

 Aaya = Remainder of Length x 8 12 Vyaya = Remainder of Breadth x 9 10 Rksha (Nakshatra) = Remainder of Length x 8 27 Yoni = Remainder of Breadth x 3 8 Vara = Remainder of Height x 9 7 Tithi = Remainder of Height x 9 30

#### Table 1

Vastu regulates the primary elements in an enclosure with reference to its length, breadth and height. By having the dimensions worked out using the Ayadi formulae, the residents can, to a certain extent, experience material and spiritual awareness. Living in such spaces can contribute harmony with the gross (sthoola) and subtle (sookshma) energies leading to both physical and metaphysical well being of the individual(s).

Aya, also known as aadhayam, means income and Vyaya means loss or expenditure. When these formulae are applied Aya should be greater than Vyaya (Ayam Adhikyam, Vyayam Hinam) in order that the dimensions worked out positively energizes the structure or building.

The Yoni and Rksha (Nakshatra) formulae are applied for finding the breadth of the building. The Yoni formula should be worked out to always get an odd remainder.

The1, 3, 5 and 7 remainders are referred to as Dhwaja, Simha, Vrshabha and Gaja indicating the directions East, South, West and North, respectively. Generally orientation to any direction can have the Dhwaja Yoni worked out.
The Yoni can be calculated, for sites not oriented to the cardinal directions, based on the following table.

 Angular Orientation Relative Cardinal Direction Yoni Number Northeast East Dhwaja 1 Southeast South Simha 3 Southwest West Vrishaba 5 Northwest North Gaja 7

#### Table 2

The Rksha (or Nakshatra) formula should be worked out such that the remainder indicates a constellation that is compatible to the master's (or spouse's) constellation.

The height of the building can be fixed based on the Vara and Tithi formulae. After calculating the negative or paisacha zones of the site, the proposed length of the available space is converted into hasta and then the formulae applied. An example, utilizing the various formulae, is given below:

Consider a site measuring 45 feet by 63 feet. We first find the paisacha or non-habitable area by dividing each side into nine parts. On the 63 feet side, the paisacha works out to 7 feet each on either side giving us 49 feet of Vastu approved land for construction. On the other side of 45 feet, the non-habitable area works out to 5 feet on either side and we have 35 feet of Vastu compatible land for construction.

The Ayadi table given in the end of the article is worked out equating a hasta to 1.5 feet or 18'. The formulae can be applied to both rooms (inner) and buildings (outer).

Let us now look at the Aya and Rksha (E and F) columns to arrive at the proper length. Aya for 49 feet works out to 9 and Rksha works out to 18 (Jyeshta). If we need a smaller measurement we can accordingly trace a dimension that gives higher figure of Aya and a compatible figure of Rksha.

Divide the 27 constellations into three sets of nine each and count the nakshatra obtained from your nakshatra. The count as per following table indicates the compatibility or otherwise.

 Count from your Nakshatra Referred to as Indicates 1 Janma Danger 2 Sampath Wealth and Prosperity 3 Vipath Danger, Loss, Accidents 4 Kshema Prosperity 5 Pratyak Obstacles 6 Sadhana Realization of Ambitions 7 Naidhana Danger 8 Mitra Favorable 9 Parama Mitra Very Favorable

#### Table 3

Let us now arrive at the proper breadth dimension by referring to columns G and H. Locate the nearest measurement to 35 and check on its compatible Vyaya and Yoni. The table indicates dimensions 32.5 and 32.25 showing the Yoni as 1 and Vyaya as 5 & 4 respectively.

On similar lines the height of the building can also be identified from the table. Where normal foundation is used, the height from its base can be considered and for pillar foundation, the height from the bottom of its base over which the building is constructed can be considered. The height is with reference to the highest point of the building be it the overhead tank or the skylight of the building. The columns to be referred to are I and J.

The dimensions of length, breadth and height can be worked out for residential and business buildings, layouts, religious buildings, swimming pools and underground and overhead water tanks too.

It would be indeed be a contribution to the people if city developers and builders allot sites to the public with the dimensions worked out on at least three formulae, viz., Aya, Vyaya and Yoni.

 A B C D E F G H I J Feet Hasta Paisacha Zone (ft) Paisacha free zone (ft) Aya Rksha Vyaya Yoni Vara Tithi 29.00 19.33 6.44 22.56 11 20 4 2 6 24 29.25 19.50 6.50 22.75 0 21 6 3 1 26 29.25 19.50 6.50 22.75 0 21 6 3 1 26 29.50 19.67 6.56 22.94 1 22 7 3 2 27 29.75 19.83 6.61 23.14 3 24 9 4 4 29 30.00 20.00 6.67 23.33 4 25 0 4 5 0 30.25 20.17 6.72 23.53 5 26 2 5 7 2 30.50 20.33 6.78 23.72 7 1 3 5 1 3 30.75 20.50 6.83 23.92 8 2 5 6 3 5 31.00 20.67 6.89 24.11 9 3 6 6 4 6 31.25 20.83 6.94 24.31 11 5 8 7 6 8 31.50 21.00 7 24.50 0 6 9 7 0 9 31.75 21.17 7.06 24.69 1 7 9 7 0 9 32.00 21.23 7.11 24.89 3 9 2 0 3 12 32.25 21.50 7.17 25.08 4 10 4 1 5 14 32.50 21.67 7.22 25.28 5 11 5 1 6 15 32.75 21.83 7.28 25.47 7 13 7 2 1 17 33.00 22.00 7.33 25.67 8 14 8 2 2 18 33.25 25.17 7.39 25.86 9 15 10 3 4 20 33.25 25.17 7.39 25.86 9 15 10 3 4 20 33.50 22.33 7.44 25.06 11 17 1 3 5 21 33.75 22.50 7.50 26.25 0 18 3 4 7 23 34.00 22.67 7.56 26.44 1 19 4 4 1 24 34.25 22.83 7.61 26.64 3 21 6 5 3 26 34.50 23.00 7.67 26.83 4 22 7 5 4 27 34.75 23.17 7.72 27.03 5 23 9 6 6 29 35.00 23.33 7.78 27.22 7 25 0 6 0 0 35.25 23.50 7.83 27.42 8 26 2 7 2 2 35.50 23.67 7.89 27.61 9 0 3 7 3 3 35.75 23.83 7.94 27.81 11 2 5 8 5 5 36.00 24.00 8.00 28.00 0 3 6 0 6 6 36.25 24.17 8.06 28.19 1 4 8 1 1 8 36.50 24.33 8.11 28.39 3 6 9 1 2 9 36.75 24.50 8.17 28.58 4 7 1 2 4 11 37.00 24.67 8.22 28.78 5 8 2 2 5 12 37.25 24.83 8.28 28.97 7 10 4 3 7 14 37.50 25.00 8.33 29.17 8 11 5 3 1 15 38.00 25.33 8.44 29.56 11 14 8 4 4 18 38.25 25.50 8.50 29.75 0 15 10 5 6 20 38.50 25.67 8.56 29.94 1 16 1 5 0 21 38.50 25.67 8.56 29.94 1 16 1 5 0 21 38.75 25.83 8.61 30.14 3 18 3 6 2 23 39.00 26.00 8.67 30.33 4 19 4 6 3 24 39.25 26.17 8.72 30.53 5 20 6 7 5 26 39.50 26.33 8.78 30.72 7 22 7 7 6 27 39.75 26.50 8.83 30.92 8 23 9 8 1 29 40 26.67 8.89 31.11 9 24 0 0 2 0 40.25 26.83 8.94 31.31 11 26 2 1 4 2 40.50 27.00 9.00 31.50 0 0 3 1 5 3 40.75 27.17 9.06 31.69 1 1 5 2 7 5 41.00 27.33 9.11 31.89 3 3 6 2 1 6 41.25 27.50 9.17 32.08 4 4 8 3 3 8 41.50 27.67 9.22 32.28 5 5 9 3 4 9 41.75 27.83 9.28 32.47 7 7 1 4 6 11 42.00 28.00 9.33 32.67 8 8 2 4 0 12 42.25 28.17 9.39 32.86 9 9 4 5 2 14 42.50 28.33 9.44 33.06 11 11 5 5 3 15 42.75 28.50 9.50 33.25 0 12 7 6 5 17 43.00 28.67 9.56 33.44 1 13 8 6 6 18 43.50 29.00 9.67 33.83 4 16 1 7 2 21 43.75 29.17 9.72 34.03 5 17 3 8 4 23 44 29.33 9.78 34.22 7 19 4 0 5 24 44.00 29.33 9.78 34.22 7 19 4 0 5 24 44.25 29.50 9.83 34.42 8 20 6 1 7 26 44.50 29.67 9.89 34.61 9 21 7 1 1 27 44.75 29.83 9.94 34.81 11 23 9 2 3 29 45.00 30.00 10.00 35.00 0 24 0 2 4 0 45.25 30.17 10.06 35.19 1 25 2 3 6 2 45.75 30.50 10.17 35.58 4 1 5 4 2 5 46.00 30.67 10.22 35.78 5 2 6 4 3 6 46.25 30.83 10.28 35.97 7 4 8 5 5 8 46.50 31.00 10.33 36.17 8 5 9 5 6 9 46.75 31.17 10.39 36.36 9 6 1 6 1 11 47.00 31.33 10.44 36.56 11 8 2 6 2 12 47.25 31.50 10.50 36.75 0 9 4 7 4 14 47.75 31.83 10.61 37.14 3 12 7 8 7 17 48.00 32.00 10.67 37.33 4 13 8 0 1 18 48.50 32.33 10.78 37.72 7 16 1 1 4 21 48.75 32.50 10.83 37.92 8 17 3 2 6 23 49.00 32.67 10.89 38.11 9 18 4 2 0 24 49.00 32.67 10.89 38.11 9 18 4 2 0 24 49.50 33.00 11.00 38.50 0 21 7 3 3 27 49.75 33.17 11.06 38.69 1 22 9 4 5 29 50.00 33.33 11.11 38.89 3 24 0 4 6 0 50.25 33.50 11.17 39.08 4 25 2 5 1 2 50.50 33.67 11.22 39.28 5 26 3 5 2 3 50.75 33.83 11.28 39.47 7 1 5 6 4 5 51.00 34.00 11.33 39.67 8 2 6 6 5 6

An attempt has been made to present some of the important formulae used in Vastu Sastra related to the design and construction of a building or structure. Proper equations need to be used in the formulae. The ultimate goal of constructions based on Vastu considerations is to optimize the spiritual and material welfare of the people.

### Maana - Proportion

Whether one is creating a building, a craft item or an article of daily use, the aim of the design should be that:

• The designed product must be useful and lend itself to easy application.
• The designed product must be aesthetically pleasing. This principle covers the exterior of a building as well as the interior.
• The designed product must be capable of evoking a feeling of well-being and contentment.

For this, certain 'proportions' should be followed when designing an object or a building. The third principle of Vaastu Shastra is 'Maana or Proportionate Measurement'. According to Vaastu Shastra, adherence to Maana is imperative in all creative activity, be it sculpture or architecture because only then will an object created by man look perfect, proportionate and pleasing to the eye.

The ancient indian Vaastu pundits after trial and error, arrived at the perfect measurements- ratio of height, length and breadth- to create a proportionate three dimensional building. So for centuries afterwards, this became an easy formula for Architects to follow when designing buildings.

### Measurements

In Indian Architecture the standards of measurements are Angula (3/4th of an inch) and Hasta (18 inches). The measurement is divided into 6 categories. Proportionate ratios of these 6 categories are laid out for various uses:

•  Measurement of Height,
•  Measurement of Width or Circumference,
•  Measurement along Plumb Lines,
•  Measurement of Thickness and
•  Measurement of Interspace.

### Ratio of Height to Breadth

The following ratios of Height to Breadth are  the best for buildings and each indicates a certain aspect of beauty and proportion.

• Ratio of 1 : When the Height is equal to the Breadth, the structure is considered to be aesthetically proportionate.
• Ratio of 1.25 : When the Height is 1.25 times the Breadth, the structure is considered to have good stability.
• Ratio of 1.5 : When the Height is 1.5 times the Breadth, the structure is considered to have a pleasant appearance.
• Ratio of 1.75 : When the Height is 1.75  times the Breadth, the structure is good in every way and will be appear both strong and beautiful.
• Ratio of 2 : When the Height is twice the Breadth, the structure will appear gorgeous.

Nowadays, people do not make an effort to follow proportion in buildings. The only consideration in the design of such structures is about maximising the F.A.R. / F.S.I. and no thought is given to the height or proportion or whether the building will look overpowering or ugly.

This is why a science like Vaastu Shastra should be referred to when people have doubts about proportions and aesthetics. All the proportions and dimensions for creating a beautiful house have been handed down to us on a platter in the form of formulae.

### What are the Types of Chandas in Vastu Shastra?

After the Selection of Site, by applying the Vastu principles to the design of the building, one would be assured of a proportionate, aesthetic and beautiful building with the right measurements. The Vastu principle ‘Chanda – aesthetics/form’ describes the different forms or elevations of a building.

Chanda means ‘Beauty’. So Chanda is the beauty aspect or aesthetics of buildings.  Chanda in Vaastu literally means, a view of the contour of a structure against the sky, i.e. its perspective view. In ancient Indian architecture, the contours of buildings were different for buildings with different functions. The forms of different classes of buildings  varied to satisfy different functions and they never were identical in appearance. According to Vaastu Shastra, adherence to Chanda would ensure an aesthetic looking building that is pleasing to the eye. Also, it ensured the easy identification of buildings (of different functions). For example, a temple can easily be identified by it’s mountain like form.

There are six chandas in Vaastu Shastra. They have been explained below along with suitable architectural examples.

1. Meru Chanda,
2. Khanda Meru Chanda,
3. Pataaka Chanda,
4. Sushi Chanda,
5. Uddista Chanda,
6. Nasta Chanda.

In Meru Chanda, the form of a building is like the mythological, sacred, Hindu mountain, “Meru” which is believed to be the centre of all physical, metaphysical and spiritual universes. The Meru perspective appears like a central pinnacle which rises considerably above the ground surface and having sides sloping step by step in an easy gradation all round. Many hindu temples are modelled on the Meru aspect to symbolically represent Mount Meru.

In Khanda Meru the outward peripheral ends of the building do not form a complete circle, but has a vertical cut side, i.e., it appears  like Meru which has been cut off vertically leaving the exposed surface as a precipitous cliff. An example of a building with this contour is the well known Burj Al Arab hotel in Dubai, the second tallest hotel in the world at a height of 1050 feet.

In Pataaka Chanda the building appears to be like a flagstaff with a flag unfurled, i.e. with a narrow lower portion and progressive, cantilevered upper floors. For example, the Throne Pillar at Fatehpur Sikri, India. Shown here is an example of such a structure, the CN tower in Toronto, Canada which is a communications and observation tower at a height of 1815 feet.

In Sushi Chanda the building has the appearance of a needle. An example is the recently completed, tallest building in the world, the Burj Khalifa towers in Dubai at a height of 2717 feet.

Uddista and Nasta Chandas are not independent and they have no perspective view of their own.

The above mentioned Chandas or forms were used in the design of different buildings meant for different functions. For example,  temples all over India took the form of the mythological Mountain Meru, thought to be the seat of Lord Brahma in Hindu mythology.

‘Chanda – Aesthetics’ explains the different forms/shapes/aesthetics of  Buildings. After working out the right proportion, fixing the external dimensions of the building and deciding the external form or elevation, one needs to design the interior layout of the building.

#### Er. Rameshwar Prasad invites you to the Wonderful World of Vastu Shastra

(B.Tech., M.Tech., P.G.D.C.A., P.G.D.M.)

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